Determining mass via



The problem with determining quark mass via scattering (the only way we presently can obtain quark mass) is that we get the reverse of what we should.

For instance: the proton is composed of two up quarks and one down quark.

Via scattering, an up quark shows a mass of 0.004 GeV/c2.

Via scattering, a down quark shows a mass of 0.008 GeV/c2.

Yet the proton that is composed of two up quarks and one down quark has more than fifty times the mass of all three or 0.938 GeV/c2.

This is an impossibility because the strong force binding energy equivalent in mass subtracted from the combined mass of the three quarks, as unbound individuals, must exactly equal the mass of the proton. It doesn't. In fact, we get an entire reversal of what we should have.

Scientists are puzzled, therefore, by these extremely low mass indications for the up and down quarks that build both the proton and neutron.

An answer to this would be that the different quarks have at least two different spin frequencies and these spin frequencies -- when they appear near the proton's (or neutron's) radius -- combine to form a much lower harmonic frequency that is the same as the electron spin frequency.

Not only would this answer solve the problem of these low mass readings but it would also show us the reason for the quantity c2.

Would it also give us what Einstein searched for -- the frequency of gravity?


For more about all this see:

Be sure to read:

See this short, clear picture:



There's a lot more too.

And this you can find out by buying my latest book Universities Asleep at the Switch at or by reading it FREE simply by clicking the following links: (This link is faster if you have dial up.) (This is the book FREE in Adobe.).

Over 4 Decades of Fitzpatrick's Books, Papers & Thoughts

Web pages are at: &

Thanks for reading this. Let me know what YOU think. e-mail is

This page can be copied and published by anyone as long as it is copied and published in its entirety.

February 16, 2010

Daniel P. Fitzpatrick Jr.




Over 4 Decades of Daniel P. Fitzpatrick's Books, Papers and Thoughts